Monday, June 17, 2019

Ockham's Razor applied, but not used: can we do DNA-scaffolding with seven characters?

One of the most interesting research areas in organismal science is the cross-road between palaeontology and neontology, which puts together a picture marrying the fossil record with molecular-based phylogenies. Unfortunately, when it comes to plant (palaeo-)phylogenetics, some people adhere to outdated analysis frameworks (sometimes with little data).

How to place a fossil?

The fossil record is crucial for neontology as it can provide age constraints (minimum ages when doing node dating) and inform us about the past distribution of a lineage. This, especially in the case of plants that can't run away from unfortunate habitat changes, can be much different than today.

The main question in this context is whether a fossil represents the stem, ie. a precursor or extinct ancient sister lineage, or the crown group, ie. a modern-day taxon (primarily modern-day genus). For instance, the oldest crown fossil gives the best-possible minimum age for the stem (root) age of a modern lineage, whereas a stem fossil can give (at best) only a rough estimate for the crown age of the next-larger taxon/clade when doing the common node dating of molecular trees (note that fossilized birth-death dating can make use of both).

There are two commonly accepted criteria to identify a crown-group fossil:
  1. Apomorphy-based argues that if a fossil shows a uniquely derived character (ie. a aut- or synapomorphy sensu Hennig) or character suite diagnostic for a modern-day genus, it represents a crown-group fossil.
  2. Phylogeny-based aims to place the fossil in a phylogenetic framework, the position of the fossil in the genus- or species-level tree (most commonly done) or network (rarely done but producing much less biased or flawed results) then informs what it is.
(We will focus on members of modern-day genera, since it becomes more trickier for higher-level taxa, see eg. my posts thinking about What is an angiosperm? [part1][part2][why I pondered about it].)

There a three basic options to place a fossil using a phylogenetic tree.
  1. Putting up a morphological matrix, then inferring the tree. A classic but due to the nature of most morphological data sets leading to a partly wrong tree as we demonstrated in some posts here on the Genealogical World of Phylogenetic Networks (hence, such analysis should always be done in a network-based exploratory data analysis framework).
  2. Putting up a mixed molecular-morphological matrix, then inferring a "total evidence" tree. This includes sophisticated approaches that use the molecular data to implement weights on the morphological traits and/or consider the age of the fossils (so-called total evidence dating approaches). Works not that bad with animal-data, provided the matrix includes a lot of morphological traits reflecting aspects of the (molecular-based) phylogeny. Doesn't work too well for plants because we usually have much fewer scorable traits, most of which are evolved convergently or in parallel. Non-trivial plant fossils love to act as rogues during phylogenetic inference.
  3. Optimise the position of a fossil in a molecular-based tree, eg. using so-called "DNA scaffold approach" (usually using parsimony as optimality criterion) or the evolutionary placement algorithm implemented in RAxML (using maximum likelihood). A special form of this approach is to first map the traits on a (dated) molecular tree, and then find the position where a fossil would fit best.

Why (standard) phylogenetic tree-based approaches are tricky

Below a simple example, including three fossils of different age (and often, place) with different character suites.

Even though none of the derived traits (blue and red "1") is a synapomorphy (fide Hennig), we can assign the youngest fossil X to the lineage of genus 1A just based just based on its unique derived ('apomorphic') character suite. Its likely a crown-group fossil of clade 1, and may inform a minimum age for the most-recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the two modern-day genera of Clade 1.
Apomorphy-wise, fossils Y and Z cannot be unambiguously placed. The red trait appears to be independently obtained in both clades, and the blue trait may have been
To discern between the options, we'd be well-advised to do character mapping in a probabilistic framework which require a tree with independently defined branch-lengths.

Just by using parsimony-based DNA-scaffolding, fossil X would be confirmed as crown-group fossil and member of genus 1A (being identical and different from all others) and fossil Z would end up as a stem-group fossil. Fossil Y, however, would be placed as sister to genus 2C (again, identical to each other and different from all others). Using Y in node dating, would then lead to a much too old divergence age for the crown-group age of Clade 2. In reality, what researchers do with such a seemingly too old fossil is not to use it by the book, as MRCA of Genus 2B and 2C, but to inform the MRCA of eg. genera 2A, 2B, and 2C assuming that the fossil's age and trait set indicate the 2C morphology is primitive within the clade or Y is an extinct sister lineage and the shared derived trait a convergence (parallelism).

Four characters, three homoplastic and one invariant, are surely not enough for DNA-scaffolding, but adding more and more characters has a catch. Easy to do for the modern-day taxa, for which we also have molecular data, the preservation of fossils limits adding many more traits; any trait not preserved in the fossil is effectively useless when placing it (including not-preserved traits in total evidence approach may, nonetheless, help the analysis). Which brings us to the real-world example just published in Science:

Wilf P, Nixon KC, Gandolfo MA, Cúneo RA (2019). Eocene Fagaceae from Patagonia and Gondwanan legacy in Asian rainforests. Science 364, 972. Full-text article at Science website.

Why one should not place a fossil using DNA-scaffolding with seven characters

Wilf et al. show (another) spectacularly preserved fossil from the Eocene of Patagonia. Personally, I think that just publishing and shortly describing such a beautiful fossil should be enough to get into the leading biological journals.

But Wilf et al. wanted (needed?) more and came up with the following "phylogenetic analysis" to argue that their fossil is a crown-group Castanoideae, a representative of the modern-day firmly Southeast Asian tropical-subtropical genus Castanopsis, and evidence for a "southern route to Asia hypothesis" (via Antarctica and Australia, both well-studied but devoid so far of any Fagaceae presence; despite the fact that the modern-day climate allows cultivating them as eg. source for commercially used wood).

Wilf et al's Fig. 3 and Table 1 suggest to me that the paper was not critically reviewed by anyone familiar with the molecular genetics of Fagaceae or phylogenetic methods in general — perhaps this is not needed, since the first author is well-merited and the second author a world-leading expert of botanical palaeo-cladistics. However, parsimony-based DNA-scaffolding can be tricky, even with a larger set of characters (see eg. the post on Juglandaceae using a well-done matrix), and using seven is therefore quite bold. Notably, of the seven characters, one is parsimony-uninformative and four are variable within at least one of the included OTUs.

Side note: The tree used as a backbone is outdated and not comprehensive. Plastid and nuclear-molecular data indicate that the castanoids Lithocarpus (mostly tropical SE Asia) and Chrysolepis (temperate N. America) may be sisters. However, the morphologically quite similar Notholithocarpus is not related to either of these, but is instead a close relative of the ubiquitous oaks, genus Quercus (not included in Wilf et al.'s backbone tree), especially subgenus Quercus. Furthermore, the (today Eurasian) castanoid sisterpair Castanea (temperate)-Castanopsis (tropical-subtropical) have stronger affinities to the (today and in the past) Eurasian oaks of subgenus Cerris. The Fagaceae also include three distinct monotypic relict genera, the "trigonobalanoids" Formanodendron and Trigonobalanus, SE Asia, and Colombobalanus from Columbia, South America. Using a more up-to-date instead of a 2-decade-old molecular hypothesis would have been a fair request during review, as would compiling a new molecular matrix to infer a tree used as backbone (currently gene banks include > 238,000 nucleotide DNA accessions including complete plastomes). This would have also enabled the authors to map their traits using a probabilistic framework, which can protect to some degree against homoplastic bias but requires a backbone tree with defined branch-lengths.

There are many more problems with the paper and its conclusions, but this critique would be content- not network-related. Let's just look at the data and see why Wilf et al. would have better off not showing any phylogenetic analysis at all (and the impact-driven editors and positive-meaning reviewers should have advised against it). Or a network.

Clades with little character support

The scaffolding placed the Eocene fossil in a clade with both representatives of Castanopsis, from which it differs by 0–2 and 1–4 traits, respectively. Phylogeny-based, the fossil is a stem- or crown-Castanopsis.

However, the fossil has a character suite that differs in just a single trait (#6: valve deshiscence) from the (genetically very distant) sister taxon of all other Fagaceae, Fagus (the beech), used here as the outgroup to root the Castanoideae subtree. As far as apomorphies are concerned, the data are inconclusive as to whether the fossil represents a stem-Castanoideae (or extinct Fagaceae lineage) or a Castanopsis — this critical, potentially diagnostic derived trait, partial valve dehiscence, is only shared by the fossil and some but not all modern-day Castanopsis. This particular trait is not mentioned elsewhere in the text, although it is the reason the fossil is placed next to Castanopsis and not the outgroup Fagus in the "phylogenetic analysis".

In the following figure, I have mapped (with parsimony) the putative character mutations on the tree used by Wilf et al.

Black font: shared by Fagus (outgroup) and "Castanoideae". Green font: potential uniquely derived traits. Blue font: traits reconstructed as having evolved in parallel/convergently. Red branches, clades in the used backbone tree that are at odds with currently available molecular data (the N. American relict Notholithocarpus should be sister to the Eurasian Castanea-Castanopsis).

This hardly presents a strong case of crown-group assignation. Except for partial dehiscence, even the modern-day Castanopsis have little discriminating derived traits — they are living fossils with a primitive ('plesiomorphic') character suite. Intriguingly, they are also genetically less derived than other Castanoideae and the oaks (see eg. the ITS tree in Denk & Grimm 2010).

The actual differentiation pattern

The best way to depict what the character set provides as information for placing the fossil is, of course, the Neighbor-net, as shown next.

Neighbor-net based on Wilf et al.'s seven scored morphological traits used to place the fossil. Green: the current molecular-based phylogenetic synopsis — based mostly on Oh & Manos 2008; Manos et al. 2008; Denk & Grimm 2010. I had the opportunity to get familiar with all of the then-available genetic data when harvesting all Fagaceae data from gene banks in 2012 for a talk in Bordeaux. One complication in getting an all-Fagaceae-tree is that plastids, geographically constrained, and nuclear regions tell partly different stories.

Castanopsis, including the fossil, is morphologically a paraphyletic (see also our other posts dealing with paraphyla represented as clades in trees). Note also the long edge-bundle separating the temperate Chrysolepis and chestnuts (Castanea), from their respective cold-intolerant sister genera (Lithocarpus viz Castanopsis) — derived traits have been accumulated in parallel within the "Castanoideae". The scored aspects of Fagaceae morphology are very flexible and ~50 million years is a long time, possibly leading to partial valve indehiscence (or losing it) without being part of the same generic lineage. The puzzling differentiation, and the profoundly primitive appearance of the fossil (shared with modern-day Castanopsis), may in fact be the reason the authors didn't: (i) optimize / discuss very similar, co-eval fossils from the Northern Hemisphere interpreted (and cited) as extinct genera (eg. Crepet & Nixon 1989), (ii) left out the two Fagaceae genera today occurring in South America, (iii) opted for classic parsimony and a partly outdated molecular hypothesis, and (iv) just showed a naked cladogram without branch support values as the result of their "phylogenetic analysis" (Please stop using cladograms!)

Based on the scored characters, the position of the fossil in the graph, and on the background of a more up-to-date molecular-based phylogenetic synopsis (the green tree in the figure above), the most parsimonious interpretation (and probably, the most likely) is that the fossil may indeed be a stem-Castanoideae, a representative of the lineage from which the Laurasian oaks evolved at least 55 million yrs ago (oldest Quercus fossil was found in SE Asia), or even represent a morphologically primitive, extinct (South) American lineage of the Fagaceae. Regarding the "southern route", Ockham's Razor would favor that they are just a South American extension of the widespread Eocene Laurasian Fagaceae / Castanoideae, since very similar fossils and castaneoid pollen is found in equally old and older sites in North America, Greenland (papers cited by Wilf et al.) and Eurasia but not Australia, New Zealand or Antarctica.

A final note: when you have so few characters to compare, you should use OTUs that are not completely ambiguous in every potentially discriminating character, as scored for the "C. fissa group" — the "Castanopsis group" has a single unambiguously defined, potentially derived trait. Using artificial bulk taxa is generally a bad idea when mapping trait evolution onto a molecular backbone tree. Instead, you should compile a representative placeholder taxa set, with as many taxa as you need (or are feasible) to represent all character combinations seen in the modern species/genera.

Postscriptum (14/1/2020)
Relevant matrices (NEXUS-formatted) and explicit character trait maps (Why we want to map trait evolution on networks, pt.1 – Introduction, pt.2 – Topological Ambiguity) have been uploaded to figshare.

Other cited references, with comments
Crepet WL, Nixon KC (1989) Earliest megafossil evidence of Fagaceae: phylogenetic and biogeographic implications. American Journal of Botany 76: 842–855. – introducing a Castanopsis-like infructescence interpreted to represent an extinct genus but very similar to the new Patagonian fossil in its preserved features; and co-occuring with castaneoid pollen (not reported so far for Patagonia) and foliage.
Denk T, Grimm GW (2010) The oaks of western Eurasia: traditional classifications and evidence from two nuclear markers. Taxon 59: 351–366. — includes an all-"Quercaceae" ITS-tree (fig. 3) and -network (fig. 4) using data of ~ 1000 ITS accessions; the nuclear-encoded ITS is so far the only comprehensively sampled gene region that gets the genera and main intra-generic lineages apart (recently confirmed and refined by NGS phylogenomic data), something wide-sampled plastid barcodes struggle with. Analysed with up-to-date methods and avoiding long-branch interference by excluding the only partially alignable Fagus, Castanopsis dissolves into a grade in the all-accessions tree and Quercus is deeply nested within the Castanoideae (as already seen in the 2001 tree used by Wilf et al. as backbone). The species-level PBC neighbor-net prefers a ciruclar arrangement in which Notholithocarpus remains a putative sister of substantially divergent and diversified Quercus, followed by Castanea-Castanopsis, and Lithocarpus, while Chrysolepis is recognized as unique.

Oh S-H, Manos PS (2008) Molecular phylogenetics and cupule evolution in Fagaceae as inferred from nuclear CRABS CLAW sequences. Taxon 57: 434–451. – Probably still the best Fagaceae tree, and surely not a bad basis for probabilistic mapping of morphological traits in the family.

Manos PS, Cannon CH, Oh S-H (2008) Phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic status of the paleoendemic Fagaceae of Western North America: recognition of a new genus, Notholithocarpus. Madroño 55: 181–190. – the tree failed to resolve the monophyly of the largest genus, the oaks, but depicts well the data reality when combining ITS with plastid data and, hence, provides a good trade-off guide tree.

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